Ordering Violence: Explaining Armed Group-State Relations from Conflict to Cooperation. Cornell University Press, 2021.

Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse. Cornell Studies in Security Affairs, Cornell University Press, 2014. Indian edition 2015, Munshiram Manoharlal.

Refereed Publications

“Strategy, Secrecy, and External Support for Insurgent Groups.” With Avinash Paliwal. International Studies Quarterly, forthcoming.

Political Coalitions and Social Media: Evidence from Pakistan.” With Asfandyar Mir and Tamar Mitts. Perspectives on Politics, FirstView (2022).

Leftist Insurgency in Democracies.” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3-4 (2021), 518-552.

“Pakistan’s Military Elite.” With Adnan Naseemullah and Ahsan Butt. Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1 (2020). Supplementary Materials. See more on the project data here.

New Data on Indian Security Force Fatalities and Demographics.” With Drew Stommes. India Review, Vol. 18, No. 3 (2019). Dataset.

“Politics and Threat Perception: Explaining Pakistani Military Strategy on the North West Frontier.”  With Asfandyar Mir and Sameer Lalwani. Security Studies, Vol 27, No 4 (2018). Supplementary Materials.

“How and Why Armed Groups Participate in Elections.” With Aila M. Matanock. Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 16, No. 3 (2018).

“Democratic Accountability and Foreign Security Policy: Theory and Evidence from India” With Vipin Narang. Security Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3 (2018).

“Internal Security Strategy in India.” India Review Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018).

“Armed Politics and the Study of Intrastate Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 54, No. 4 (July 2017). Supplementary Materials.

“Indirect Rule and Varieties of Governance.” With Adnan Naseemullah. Governance, Vol. 29, No. 1  (January 2016), pp. 13-30.

“Armed Groups and Militarized Elections.” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 59, No. 4 (December 2015), pp. 694-705.

“Militias, Ideology, and the State.” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol 59, No. 5 (August 2015), pp. 770-793.

“Review Essay: Violence and Democracy.”Comparative Politics, Vol. 47, No. 1 (October 2014), pp. 99-118.

“Kashmir since 2003: Counterinsurgency and the Paradox of ‘Normalcy.’” Asian Survey, Vol. 53, No. 5 (September/October 2013), pp. 931-957.

“Organizing Insurgency: Networks, Resources, and Rebellion in South Asia.”International Security, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Summer 2012), pp. 142-177.

“States, Insurgents, and Wartime Political Orders.”Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 10, No. 2 (June 2012), pp. 243-264. Copyright American Political Science Association.

“Institutions and Worldviews in Indian Foreign Security Policy.” With Vipin Narang. India Review, Vol. 11, No. 2 (2012), pp. 76-94.

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Insurgent Fratricide, Ethnic Defection, and the Rise of Pro-State Paramilitaries.” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 56, No. 1 (February 2012), pp. 16-40.

“Cities on Fire: Social Mobilization, State Policy, and Urban Insurgency.”Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 43, No. 12 (December 2010), pp. 1623-1649.

“Explaining Civil-Military Relations in Complex Political Environments: India and Pakistan inComparative Perspective.”Security Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2 (April 2008), pp. 322-362. [Note: there is a typo on page 350 – the phrase “did not feel it could not” has an extra “not.” This is why proofing galleys from a Delhi hospital bed is a bad idea.]

“Ten Ways to Lose at Counterinsurgency.” With Kelly Greenhill. Civil Wars, Vol. 9, No. 4 (December 2007), pp. 402-419.

Book Chapters

“Counterinsurgency in India.” In Sumit Ganguly, Manjeet Pardesi, and Nicolas Blarel., eds., The Oxford Handbook of India’s National Security (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).

“State and Politics.” With Vipin Narang. In David Malone, C. Raja Mohan, and Srinath Raghavan, eds., Oxford Handbook on Indian Foreign Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

“America and Pakistan after 2014: Toward Strategic Breathing Space.” In Christine Fair and Sarah Watson, eds., Pakistan’s Enduring Challenges (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015).

“Insurgencies in India.” In Atul Kohli and Prerna Singh, eds., Routledge Handbook of Indian Politics (London: Routledge, 2013).

“Foreign Policy Making in India in the Pre-Liberalization and Coalition Era.” In Amitabh Mattoo and Happymon Jacob, eds., Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy: India’s ‘Neo-Federal’ Foreign Policy (New Delhi: Har-Anand, 2010).

“Resentment, Fear, and the Structure of the Military in Multiethnic States.” With Roger Petersen. In Stephen Saideman and Marie-Joelle Zahar, eds., Insecurity in Intrastate Conflicts: Governments, Rebels, and Outsiders (London: Routledge, 2008).

Selected Other Publications

“The Militarization of U.S. Politics.” With Aila Matanock. Foreign Affairs, October 29, 2020.

“Political Violence in South Asia: The Triumph of the State?” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, September 3, 2020.

“India’s New Security Order.” War on the Rocks, December 17, 2019.

“Kashmir: A bold strategy isn’t always wise.” Hindustan Times, August 21, 2019.

“The Future of Democracy in South Asia.” Foreign Affairs, January 4, 2019

“Misreading the ‘Liberal Order’: Why We Need New Thinking in American Foreign Policy.” Lawfare, July 29, 2018.

The U.S. military is trying to manage foreign conflicts – not resolve them. Here’s why.” Washington Post: Monkey Cage, July 16, 2018.

“America Has High Expectations for India. Can New Delhi Deliver?” War on the Rocks, February 22, 2018.

“Whither ISIS? Insights from Insurgent Responses to Decline.”Washington Quarterly (Fall 2017).

“Myanmar: Understanding the Rohingya Insurgency.” IAPS Dialogue, October 4, 2017.

“Spoiler’s Limits.”Indian Express, January 11, 2016.

“Rethinking Internal Security in India.”India in Transition, Center for the Advanced Study of India, University of Pennsylvania, August 10, 2015. Reprinted in The Hindu: Business Line.

“Every Insurgency is Different.”International New York Times, February 15, 2015.

“Insurgent Organization and State-Armed Group Relations.” In The Political Science of Syria’s War, POMEPS Brief #22, Program on Middle East Political Science, December 18, 2013.

“Naval Gazing.” WIth Vipin Narang. Foreign Policy online, June 25, 2013.

“The Future of Violence in Afghanistan.”The National Interest online, July 18, 2012.

Caught in the Muddle: America’s Pakistan Strategy.” The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Winter 2011), pp. 133-148.

“Correspondence: What Makes Terrorists Tick.”International Security Vol. 33, No. 4 (Spring 2009), pp 180-202.

“Counterinsurgency is a bloody, costly business.”Foreign Policy online, November 24, 2010.

“Pakistan’s Stakes in Afghanistan.”The Friday Times (Lahore), May 8-14, 2009.

“Improving India’s Counterterrorism Policy after Mumbai.”CTC Sentinel, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, Vol 2, No. 4 (April 2009), pp. 11-14.

“When talking with terrorists makes sense.”Christian Science Monitor, May 29, 2008.

“The Challenge of Islamist Militancy in India.”CTC Sentinel, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, Vol. 1, No. 2 (January 2008), pp. 14-16.

“Pakistan on the Brink: Regional Perspectives and Implications.”Audit of the Conventional Wisdom 07-21 (MIT Center for International Studies, November 2007).

The US, India, and the Persian Gulf: Convergence or Divergence in a Post-Iraq World: Workshop Summary Report (MIT Center for International Studies Persian Gulf Initiative, 2007).

“Diversify Iraqi security forces.” With Roger Petersen. Christian Science Monitor, March 7, 2006.

“Defeating Transnational Insurgencies.”The Washington Quarterly, Volume 29, No. 1 (Winter 2005-2006), pp. 21-40.